Quality assurance and development in the German dual system of vocational education and training - how does it work? In this section DEQA-VET takes a look at the company-based part.
Three overarching principles are significant in terms of gaining an understanding of quality assurance in vocational education and training. These are the dual principle, the occupation principle (Berufsprinzip), and the principle of consensus. The dual principle combines learning in the work process with learning at a vocational school and at the same time facilitates the acquisition of occupational experience. The occupation principle (Berufsprinzip) is based on certification which is binding and recognised across the country. It affords the opportunity to exercise a multitude of occupational activities. The principle of consensus guarantees proximity to the labour market and transparency and acceptance of training occupations via the involvement of the social partners, the Federal Government and the federal states in the development of national training standards. Laws, ordinances and recommendations stipulate nationally-binding minimum standards for company-based training.
The organisation of training in Germany is subject to manifold provisions regarding training contents, the examination system and the rights and duties of the parties involved rather than being merely designed to meet the interests of companies and trainees. These stipulations ensure the quality of training.
It is our aim to make it easier to understand the central quality assurance mechanisms which underlie the company-based part of initial training in the dual system in Germany.
Quality initiatives of intermediary institutions – the provision of the Chambers
The chambers play a central role in assuring the quality of in-company training in Germany. In recent years, a wide variety of innovative approaches have emerged across Germany that address the promotion, safeguarding and awarding of in-company training quality.
The Apprenticeship Toolbox is an online platform. It explains all relevant aspects of dual apprenticeship systems and provides original templates in use in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Luxemburg and Switzerland. Formerly an ERASMUS PLUS project it now runs as an initiative by Ministries.
Learning in company
In Germany, quality assurance in company-based training takes place via a broad range of instruments at all three VET levels – the system level, the intermediate level and the company level. The following figure will give you an overview about this multi-level system.
Cornerstones for quality assurance
DEQA-VET has identified eleven cornerstones for quality assurance in company-based training. This attempt was undertaken to represent the quality assurance mechanisms in a simplified form.
The Work-based Learning TOOLKIT is the first web platform which allows users to create, collaborate and share knowledge on work-based learning issues. It is a new way to network online with the WBL community. Learn about WBL, discover tools for developing WBL and test this new toolkit.